Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Growing The Tree of Life: Editing Malick's Odyssey


Earlier this Spring I wrote an article for Cinema Editor magazine, the official publication of American Cinema Editors (ACE), in which I interviewed some of the individuals involved in the editing of The Tree of Life, which just hit DVD and Blu-Ray this week. (Some of the research for this also overlapped with my piece on Q and The Tree of Life for New York Magazine in May.) Cinema Editor has now graciously allowed me to publish the piece on this blog. (But you should consider subscribing; it's a quarterly publication, and there's lots of great stuff in there.) This version includes some material not in the original piece.

The article was written long before I actually saw the film, so it has to dance around certain elements, as did the editors themselves. (God knows, I would have had so many more questions had I been able to see and give specifics about the film before I spoke to the editors.) But it was still a fascinating experience doing it. Enjoy. And watch this space for some more Tree of Life thoughts later this week.


GROWING THE TREE OF LIFE

In the Beginning…

There are few films more highly anticipated this year than Terrence Malick’s The Tree of Life, a project that has been shrouded in mystery and wonder ever since it was first announced on the heels of 2005’s The New World. In fact, this is a film the legendary writer-director had been working on and thinking about for a long time, having originated as a project called Q back in the late 1970s, following the release of his 1978 classic Days of Heaven.

Tree is both intimate and ambitious in scope, intertwining the story of a Texas family in the 1950s with the story of the origins of the cosmos and the natural history of the world. “This movie deals with some huge issues,” says Billy Weber, one of the five credited editors on the film. “It’s about life and death and the meaning of it all, but it does so in part through these very small, intimate scenes.”

Malick’s highly personal and unique approach to filmmaking is the stuff of lore: He loves to improvise on set, often changing the whole tenor and tone of a scene from take to take. He loves to try unusual things, like asking his actors to do an entire scripted scene without actually speaking any of the dialogue. And he loves to shoot lots and lots of footage – some of it featuring the actors in the film, some of it just capturing the wonders – both grand and small – of the natural setting around him.

Such unorthodox shooting methods also call for an unorthodox approach to editing; in his recent films, Malick has opted to use teams of editors, and his latest was no different. The five credited editors on the film are Weber, Daniel Rezende, Jay Rabinowitz, Hank Corwin, and Mark Yoshikawa.

Weber, a longtime friend and collaborator of Malick’s who had edited Days of Heaven and was one of the Academy Award-nominated triumvirate that cut The Thin Red Line (along with Leslie Jones and Saar Klein), had also worked on the original Q project back in the day. He was the first editor on The Tree of Life, working for about three months: “I wasn’t able to be in Austin continuously for longer than that,” he recalls, “and I didn’t think Terry should edit the film in Los Angeles,” noting that the press-shy director prefers to work near his home base in Texas.

Malick’s reticence to leave Austin is perhaps understandable, as even the editing space sounds like a setting from one of his films. First assistant editor and associate editor Chris Roldan recalls that the team was nestled in an edit room in Austin that “had a lot of wildlife at the windows, which is something I had never experienced in an edit room. There were a lot of deer that would feed off of our windows and also a Tarantula that hung around outside the edit room, which Billy named ‘Tranny’.”


Handling All That Footage

Each editor worked on the film for about three months – except for Yoshikawa, who found himself working from the Spring of 2009 through September 2010, when the editing wrapped. (“I was in Austin for so long that Terry started buying me Texas Longhorns merchandise,” he laughs.) As might be imagined, each editor also had different creative and technical needs, and it was up to Roldan to make sure that they “could get up to speed on the project and into their creative zone as quickly as possible.” Roldan did this by giving them what he terms a “map” to the film. “I am probably the only person in the edit room who saw all of the footage,” he recalls. “To make it very flexible for the editors, I had about three different ways of organizing the footage, but ultimately I became the go-to person for what was shot where and on what format.”

Although the film was mostly shot on 35mm 4p, Roldan says that there were also elements of RED 4k, HD, SD Video, 65mm and even lo-res QuickTimes that they were working with. As a result of this huge amount of media, the film was cut in standard def, using 14:1 meridien codec. He also notes that it was a bit of a “juggling act” to run multiple systems seven days a week. “I am the type that likes dependability over ‘latest/greatest,’ so I had us running on a Unity with Mac OSX 10.4 clients and Avid MC 2.6. We rarely had any problems.”

Meanwhile, second assistant editor Rachel McPherson compiled a Filemaker Pro database that would allow the team to quickly search by scene, actor, subject, weather, costume, dialogue, or concept. Roldan notes that this made things easier particularly towards the end of the editing process, “when we would be looking for a particular shot of a location or character that would match for light or wardrobe.” He adds: “Another thing we did for the editors was paint the main edit room with magnetic paint and create scene cards with magnets on the back.” This allowed the team to have broader discussions about structure.

“The film is really built around a lot of little scenes – hundreds of little scenes and moments,” says Weber, who adds that unlike with a traditional feature, Tree of Life didn’t start off with an assembly. “There was too much footage for that.” And, of course, that footage, courtesy of director of photography Emanuel “Chivo” Lubezki (who was nominated for an Oscar for The New World), was gorgeous, and nothing like any other filmmaker’s. While many directors will film a lot of set-ups of the same scene, Malick prefers to shoot a lot of different scenes but not too many setups. “There was a lot of handheld shots, where the kids in the film would be running around, and the Steadicam operator would just be in the middle of this whirlwind,” says Yoshikawa.

Roldan adds: “Chivo and Terry shoot in such a spontaneous way that the camera has a sort of consciousness to it, so it was not unusual to get a shot of a bird or insect in-between takes or at the end of a roll.” As a result, he had the idea of organizing the footage more along the lines of a documentary, allowing the team to browse the footage by subject. “We had folders for Earth, Sky, Water, Animals, Miscellaneous, and then within those, bins that were more specific,” he says. Roldan also organized characters into bins for when they were alone and when they were together with other characters in specific combinations. “We were constantly refining this system according to the needs of the editors.”

Weber says that Malick’s approach to shooting is something the director has been developing over the years – an attempt to give an impression that everything has been shot on the fly. “We call it ‘walking down the garden path’” he says, “where nothing is locked down, where you don’t know where you’re going, or where the film is taking you. The New World was where he really experimented with that, and by the time he got to Tree of Life, he and Chivo had perfected their system. Every take was different.” Perhaps needless to say, that presented its own set of challenges for the editors. “There was no logic to the slating, even,” says Weber. “It’s not like Take 3 had anything to do with Take 2. It’d be a different scene.” Despite those challenges, however, Weber feels that Malick’s stylistic approach pays enormous dividends artistically. “I’m sure Terry would have trouble describing why he does it, but I think it’s because it feels more human, in a way – more spontaneous.”

Yoshikawa echoes that sentiment, adding that Malick wanted to avoid anything with “even had a hint of being presented or intentional. We tried to avoid the traditional shot-reverse shot approach to cutting scenes.” It also meant that because of the director’s improvisational, loose shooting style, sometimes there would be multiple scenes covering similar ground, meaning that the editors had to choose which scene best represented what the film was trying to do thematically. “We were always wanting to find unique moments of subtle and spontaneous action that also allow the camera to do the cutting,” Roldan says. “Sometimes those moments were as obvious as a butterfly spontaneously landing on Jessica Chastain's hand, and sometimes they were as subtle as a shoulder shrug or eye movement.”


The Freedom to Try Anything

Luckily, Malick likes to give his editors a lot of flexibility. “Terry is willing to try anything, Absolutely anything,” says Weber. “Sometimes we’d cut a character out of a scene, or cut all the dialogue out of a scene, just to see if it worked. And when you’ve worked with him for any length of time, you can even try that without asking him about it first. He’s very open to looking at anything that you try.” That flexibility reaches even to the way Malick likes to give direction: Yoshikawa observes that while the director has a very deep understanding of the technology of film, he prefers to speak in metaphors. “Terry isn’t the kind of guy who would ever give a direction like, ‘Cut ten frames from this shot.’ He’d rather say something like, ‘Make this scene feel more like a fleeting thought.’ I spent so much time in Austin working with him that I started speaking in metaphors as well!”

Malick even decided to open up the editing process to film students from USC and the University of Texas at Austin. “I’m a big believer in letting kids try their hand at editing scenes, because you get a certain spontaneity from them that you’re not going to get from Terry or me, ‘cause we’re too old,” chuckles Weber, noting that this was something he and Malick had thought about doing for a long time. “Kids don’t censor themselves – their brains are in a different place. So we had students give it a shot. And we’d have interns come in at night and cut scenes. And some of those people stayed on the movie the whole time!”

Since this is a Terrence Malick film, music and voiceover also played an important role in the shape of the final work. “As usual, Terry experimented a lot with the voiceover – recording different people,” says Weber. “At first, Terry didn’t know if he wanted any of the kids doing the voiceover in the movie. But he thought he might, so he recorded them.” Yoshikawa says that Malick enjoyed recording voiceover with Hunter McCracken, the young boy who plays Jack, the oldest of the three brothers in the film. “Hunter is also from Texas, from a small town near Dallas, so Terry and he would just keep going in these recording sessions.” He adds that the way Malick uses voiceover is unlike many other filmmakers: “It can be non-narrative. We’ll even use voiceover where you can’t understand all of what’s being said. Even if it’s just a whisper -- Terry likes that.”

As for music, the team had to work with both music that was being recorded by composer Alexandre Desplat and classical music that Malick had specifically envisioned for the project. “He was looking at the score as he was looking at the rest of the film,” says Yoshikawa. “He didn’t want it to feel manipulative. Sometimes, it would seem like there’d be an obvious point to put in a bit orchestral score, or to have the music swell during a particular scene. We would always try to stay away from those.”

As usual, Malick brought his prodigious knowledge to bear on his choices, bringing in music as varied as the French Baroque composer Francois Couperin and Twentieth Century experimental works. Roldan notes that it was a big challenge just to keep up with the music “and knowing, for example, the differences between the Atlanta Symphony and Sir Colin Davis versions of the Berlioz’s Requiem. I think I may have heard every good version of that symphony that has been recorded in the last 40 years.” He adds: “ I had very little exposure to classical music before, but by the time I was done on Tree of Life, I knew Smetana from Gorecki.”


Taking Final Shape…

There was, however, one thing that Malick hadn’t worked with before, but which was very important to Tree of Life. For a film that tackles the history of the universe, needless to say, Visual Effects were crucial. Malick didn’t want to edit the film and then wait for effects to be finished. Rather, he wanted to have effects ready that could then be cut into the film. VFX supervisor Dan Glass set up an office right next to the editing suite, allowing the director to shuttle back and forth between the different teams. “Terry was very specific about how he wanted those VFX shots to look,” Yoshikawa says. “He probably spent as much time with them as he did with editorial.”

“Dan and Brad Friedman, our Digital FX supervisor, were wonderful to work with,” says Roldan. “They were able to turn ideas around very quickly so that we could try them out in the cut as early as possible.” Douglas Trumbull, the legendary artist responsible for many of the VFX in 2001: A Space Odyssey also worked on the film. “He came in and did a lot of amazing home-made experimental VFX that became incorporated into Dan and Brad's work,” says Roldan.

Amid all this wild experimentation, the editorial team also had to be careful about maintaining the unique rhythms and emotions of this highly unusual film. Weber and Yoshikawa both agree that Tree of Life is probably Malick’s most experimental work – which may have given them a lot of freedom, but also presented new, unforeseen challenges. “Even on The New World, we had some specific plot points that we had to hit,” Yoshikawa says. “We knew that John Smith had to leave at a certain point, that John Rolfe had to show up – that sort of thing.” But with Tree of Life, because the film was built on so many small moments, that made structuring the film a challenge in itself. “Because a lot of the film isn’t really centered on plot, you could make some huge change to a scene, or cut a whole scene out, without losing anything plot-wise. But then later on you might look at the film and feel like something was missing emotionally, and you’d realize – it was because of this change you made earlier down the line.”

It all resulted in a work that was ever shifting as it approached the finish line. Yoshikawa, with his newfound propensity to speak in metaphors, likens the process to the voyage of a ship. “When the ship starts sailing, there are lot of different ports where it could end up, and the directions you take out at sea will determine where you end up. In the end, you’re trying to find a good port to land in.” But perhaps the final word should go to Roldan, who, as first assistant editor and associate editor, probably had to see the complete film more times than anyone else during post-production. “I have seen the film 49 times, and I'm waiting to pay for a ticket to see it for the 50th time,” he says. “It was always evolving, sometimes at a rapid pace, so I'm sure it will be a new experience when I see it again.

38 comments:

  1. Hello,

    I would like to translate this fantastic article into Spanish. I have got a blog in which I translate many interviews to editors in English for me and all interested Spanish speakers. I would like to subscribe to the magazine, but I am from Spain and I can't allow he price. I am a young student and I am learning to editing, a part of doing exercises by myself, thanks to all this articles. I would be grateful to you if you let me translate and share your article. If I have to ask it to Cinema Editor, let me know.

    Any answer will be fine. Thank you very much, Bilge.

    Pablo Hernández.
    http://editorunderconstruction.blogspot.com

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  2. Hi Pablo, I think it should be OK as long as you mention that the original article ran in Cinema Editor magazine.

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  3. Thank you. I have always mentioned the original source on my blog. But, oddly, some people, a minority, don't allow me to share information, to share culture...

    Well, congratulations by this article. I like it very much so thank you very much!

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  4. The motivation to spend time contemplating the creation of life on earth is too ambiguous and hurts the film. Sean Penn's scenes would have benefitted from adding more than just showing how disconnected he is from his city life.

    If the voice over had been better from mother and son then the creation scenes would have not felt like a different film.

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    I'm here to testify about what DR. ANUGE did for me. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the past 5 years and had constant pain,especially inside my body. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday. This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came across a testimony of one lady on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. Anuge on how he cured her from herpes disease. And she also gave the email address of this man and advise anybody to contact him for help for any kind of sickness that he would be of help.so I emailed him telling him about my (HERPES) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! Well i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as DR. ANUGE assured me that i will be cured,after some time. i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, the test came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can contact DR. Anuge for help. Email} dranuge@gmail.com WhatsApp /call +2348164866838

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  17. If you desperately need an honest and real death spell caster who can help you cast a perfect death spell on anyone then contact this great death spell caster called Dr Oselumen He saved my marriage when he helped me cast a death spell on the lady that almost took my husband completely away from me and the kids. just within 24hours after the casting the bitch died in her sleeping bed. You too can try this man also,
    Call/WhatsApp: +2348054265852
    Email: droselumen@gmail.com DOCTOR OSELUMEN CAN AS WELL HELP THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS
    1. HIV/AIDS CURE
    2. HERPES CURE
    3. PENIS ENLARGEMENT
    4. PREGNANCY SPELL
    5. SPELL TO PREVENT CORONA VIRUS
    get all your problem solve..No problem is too big for
    him to solve..Contact him now

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  18. Hello my name is Belinda i want to share my amazing experience with the greatest spell caster Dr irekenagba. my husband was cheating on me and when i found out we had a fight which lead to him filling for a divorce i cried and fell sick when i was searching about love quotes online i saw people talking about him and his great work whose case was similar to mine they left his contact info i contacted him and he told me not to worry that after 24hrs he will cancel the divorce and be back to me after i did everything he asked me to do to my greatest surprise the next day evening it was my husband he knelt down begging me to accept him back,thank you once again Dr irekenagba you are indeed a blessing to me he can also help you contact him on........
    WhatsApp: +2347059630655
    email:doctorirekenagba@gmail.com

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  19. Hello my name is Belinda i want to share my amazing experience with the greatest spell caster Dr irekenagba. my husband was cheating on me and when i found out we had a fight which lead to him filling for a divorce i cried and fell sick when i was searching about love quotes online i saw people talking about him and his great work whose case was similar to mine they left his contact info i contacted him and he told me not to worry that after 24hrs he will cancel the divorce and be back to me after i did everything he asked me to do to my greatest surprise the next day evening it was my husband he knelt down begging me to accept him back,thank you once again Dr irekenagba you are indeed a blessing to me he can also help you contact him on........
    WhatsApp: +2347059630655
    email:doctorirekenagba@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  20. Becoming wealthy and living the lifestyle of the rich and famous is the dream of many people. And whilst most people go to work or seek other ethical methods of making money online. The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it because it is blank just your PIN will be on it, it is not traceable and now I have money for business, shopping and enough money for me and my family to live on. PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine,anywhere in the world.
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  21. Am sharing this testimony to partners suffering in their relationships because there is an enduring solution. My husband left me and our 4 kids for another woman for 1 year. I tried to be strong just for my kids but I could not control the pains that torment my heart. I was hurt and confused. I needed a help, so i did a research on the internet and came across a site where I saw that Dr. Godday a spell caster,who can help get lot lovers back within few hours I contacted him and he did a special prayer and spells for me. To my surprises, after few days, my husband came back home. That was how we reunited again and there was a lot of love, joy and peace in the family. You can as well contact Dr. Godday, a powerful spell-caster for solutions on his contact Email: goddayspiritualhome@gmail.com Whats app only +1{919}4956404

    ReplyDelete
  22. Losing someone you love its like breaking your heart into two pieces,especially when you are deeply in love with that person.Love is an essential emotion and has Power to do everything happy and pleasant,but there came a time when i was abandoned by my husband who left me for another woman breaking our happy home apart.The same day Dr Okolo saved my life and gave me hope.I know many wont read this but that wont stop me from posting my life savior.Dr Okolo  helped me bring back my husband who was taken by another young woman.I was advised by my big sister to consult Dr Okolo via Email: drokolosolutioncenter@gmail.com who is a spiritual healer who brought my man back and cast out the voodoo spell from me and the poverty spell from my husband.we are now happy again in our relationship because my husband was promoted to being an assist manager in his campany.Am now happy with a baby boy because Priest blessed us because i couldn't get any baby because i was under a spell. for every one with the same problem Dr Okolo is there for your help.contact him via
    Email: drokolosolutioncenter@gmail.com or
    WhatsApp: +2347031895935Divorce spell  Love Spell
    Death Spell
    Success Spell
    Sickness Spell
    Pregnancy Spell
    Marriage Spell
    Job Spell
    Protection Spell

    ReplyDelete
  23. My husband and I have been married for over 10 years. We met when I was 18 and he was 21. We’ve been through a lot emotionally together. There were several HUGE fights and painful situations in our marriage, but we always seemed to come out stronger on the other side. Out of the blue my husband just sprung the divorce talk on me, I was totally depressed until I found Dr.Todd website online and I ordered for a Love spell. You won’t believe my husband called me at the exact time this spell caster finished his spell work in 48hrs. I was totally amazed! He is wonderful and his spells work so fast. His Email: manifestspellcast@ gmail. com manifestspellcast.wordpress.com

    ReplyDelete
  24. I'm Redha Soyan, Out of respect for you and your spells I must make this testimony known to all, I've been to other spell casters without seeing any result. I just wished I came to you earlier, I got the best from you. My ex husband was gone for a year and I went everywhere and other spell casters for help but no result until my friend introduced me to Dr. Ken After the Love Spell was done, I finally got a call from him. His spells worked wonders and my husband is back full of love. It's a miracle! He suddenly came back with flowers saying that i should forgive him, i was truly flabbergasted and shocked when my husband kneel down begging for forgiveness and for me to accept him back.. I'm really short of words and joyful, you are a God sent to me and my entire family.. And now I am a joyful woman once again. Thank you so much Dr. Ken To everyone who is looking for a real spell caster should contact Dr. Ken On Drkenlovespell@gmail.com OR you can also reach him directly on his Whatsapp  +1(201) 992-1012.

    ReplyDelete
  25. Are you facing any kind of difficulty in life and want the help of a spell caster, are you facing divorce and want a reconciliation Dr.OKOLO is the right and genuine man for the job, he is really good at what he does because he also helped me to recover my husband after separation contact him on WhatsApp: +2347031895935 OR email drokolosolutioncenter@gmail.com I would advise you to contact DR OKOLO because he is the right man to help you get your problem solved.You can reach him for the following spell work: love spell,divorce spell,Forgiveness Spell Attractiveness Spell, marriage spell, death spell, lottery spell,herbal medicine for any kind of health problem

    ReplyDelete
  26. What would i have done to get my husband back if not for the help of DR JOHN SOCO. my name is Sarah Nicky and I was in totally confused when my husband divorced me and said he was tired of me. My life was nothing without him and i tried all i could to make him cancel the divorce but he said his mind was made up and we went our separate ways. when my friend when searching for help and i was told to get in touch with DR JOHN SOCO for help by an New friend of mine when she heard what i was going through and i hurriedly contacted DR JOHN SOCO and explained everything to him and he told me that my husband will come back to me begging me to accept him back all within 24 hours just like everyone he had helped. DR JOHN SOCO restored the love and connection between me and my husband he truly returned back to me after 24 hours and it still amazes me. For more enquires on how to get in touch with DR JOHN SOCO, Email: drjohnsoco@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +1 (706) 871 4571..

    ReplyDelete
  27. I want to say thanks to this great man called Dr. Osasu who helped me in my marriage life. my name is Lilette Griffin lives in USA, So I was married to Albert we both love and like each other before our marriage, he care about my well being so i was so happy that i have found a man like this in my life my parents love him so much because of his kindness towards me and the way he care about me after four years in my marriage, no child he was not showing me much care anymore but i notice something is going on which i no. then i keep on with the relationship and i was hoping one day God will open my way to have a child in my home then i keep on going to church from one play to another by telling all the pastors about my problems that i don't have a child so many of them promise me that soon i we have a child in my home i keep on hoping in God's miracle on till one day when i went for a visit in my friend office then i was welcome by my friend we started dis causing about so many things on marriage life i was so shock she ask me about my wedding and what is going on till now i still don't have a child then i told her my dear sister i don't no what to do anymore and am scared of loosing my husband who have be caring for me for a long time now then she said i we not loosing him i ask how? then she said there is one man called Dr. Osasu who help in a relationship then i keep on asking how about him she told me this man can do all thing and make things possible i never believe her for once that this man she is talking about can do it so fast. also i ask her how do i get his contact she said i should not worry my self then she gave me his contact email ID and his number to contact him i said ok i will try my best to do so she wish me the best of luck in life then i went home gotten home, found that my door is open i was scared thinking so many things i don't no who is in my house now i look at the key in my hand i was thinking i did not lock my door shortly a word came into my mind that i should go inside and check if there is any body at home or my husband getting inside, i found that my husband move away his things in the house then i started calling his number refuses to pick i was like a mad Dog i cried and cried don't no what to do then i remember to that a friend of mine gave me a contact today i take my computer i emailed this man called Dr. Osasu also i called him on his cell phone which i received from my friend he spoke to me very well and i was happy my husband we come back to me so after the work was well done by Dr. Osasu, just in three days i heard my phone ringing not knowing it was my husband telling me his sorry about what he did to me then i accepted him again a month later, i was pregnant for him so i rest my testimony till i deliver safely i we give the best testimony again so my sisters and brothers if you are in such pain kindly contact this great man with this email drosasu25@gmail.com OR WhatsApp +2347064365391

    ReplyDelete
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  29. Special thanks to HACK VANISH, a professional hacker I’ve been hiring for the past 2 years because, I find him to be an outstanding hacker who has aided me in various hacking related issues, ranging from fixing my poor FICO credit score of about 437 TransUnion, 462 Equifax to 802 plus excellent score, tracking my cheating husband’s phone and currently has helped me recover my lost crypto funds from an online scam investment I recently ventured into, I must confess he is the best, quite brilliant, ever since I discovered him through a positive review I saw on Wallet Hub and reached out to him via Email: HACKVANISH @ GMAIL. COM, and Phone: +1(747) 293-8514, to which he responded in less than 10mins, I have never regretted working with him, he’s been quite helpful and highly efficient. I Would recommend his services to anyone without hesitation.

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  31. Life is always beautiful when you have good health.i have be in pain for almost 1 year had HSV 1&2 and I was lonely and sad, luckily I was directed to a very kind and Great Dr Oliha who helped me cure my HSV 1&2 and today I am free from the virus and very healthy thank you so much Dr Oliha .Email
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    Life is always beautiful when you have good health.i have be in pain for almost 1 year had HSV 1&2 and I was lonely and sad, luckily I was directed to a very kind and Great Dr Oliha who helped me cure my HSV 1&2 and today I am free from the virus and very healthy thank you so much Dr Oliha .Email
    oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com
    you can also whatsapp/Call him; +2349038382931

    ReplyDelete